History of Philippines
The Philippines gained independence on the 4th July 1946 from the United States, which is occupied in 1898 after winning the Spanish-American War. Colonization of the Philippines, however, took place in several waves in the first millennium BC the peoples who came here from the southern areas of the Asian continent.
In particular, Malaysian immigrants pushed the indigenous population into the interior hardly accessible. Displaced tribes maintain contacts among themselves, but are united. In the period of European colonization of the islands there was central government or more government department, respectively. single culture.
Neither the Asian continent had substantial influence on the islands. Since the year 1000 BC. lived on the islands of Chinese merchants. Later, there was contact with the Indonesian nobility. Unlike most of Southeast Asia, people in the Philippines has neither adopted Hinduism or Buddhism. Up to 15 century, Filipinos were nomadic collectors, fishermen and hunters.
In the 15th century, from Brunei to the Philippines spread Islam. The new religion brought with it political and social change. In the mid-16th century, the two sultans. The process of creating the modern state was interrupted by the arrival of the Spaniards. 1521 landed on the coast in Portuguese, Spanish services, Fernao de Magalhães and incorporate this into the ownership of the Spanish crown. Magellan was killed on this expedition, and even three subsequent expeditions failed. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1565 in Cebubě Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. R. 1571 Spaniards founded the present capital city of Manila.
In the 16th Century acquired control over the entire northern coast and the plane extending from Luzon to Mindanao. Inaccessible mountainous areas they have managed to fill up later.
Spanish domination of the Philippines did not work undisturbed. 1646 Dutch fleet attacked the Philippines, which was defeated at the Battle of Corregidor. Between 1762-1764 the area was occupied by Great Britain. The islands were an important crossroads of trade routes between Europe and America, and initially found only under the control of the Spaniards. By 1811 there were regularly dispatched to the Spanish sailing ship to Acapulco. Spanish trade monopoly gradually dying out.
In the 30th of the last Century, in Manila, traders of various nationalities. The importance of Manila have increased after the opening of the Suez Canal (1869). Attempts to gain independence began to materialize in the late 19th century.
1898 outbreak of the Spanish-American War. Filipinos fought alongside the United States with the promise of independence. But they were disappointed, because at the Paris Peace Agreements the U.S. colonies. The result was a long guerrilla war. 1902 were elected members of the local parliament, whose powers extend to 1916. 1934 acquired the Philippines from the U.S. status of an independent state in 1946 should be declared independence. But in 1941 the country was occupied by Japan and the United States Army to recover her from October 1944 to May 1945. 1946 United States declared the Philippines independent.
1947 was a contract that allowed the United States 99 years to maintain military bases in the Philippines. 1959 have been revised contract and lease period was reduced to 25 years.
1965 he became President Ferdinand Marcos, the leader of the National Party, which proclaimed progressive development program. His program did not materialize, however, on the contrary began to act harshly against the entire political opposition (principally the Muslim National Liberation Front calling for broad autonomy for the region of the state, still unrealized, and the organization of the Maoist New People's Army).
In the years 1972-1981 continued in a state of emergency. At the beginning of the 80 years due to worsening economic and social situation there were riots and the growth of opposition forces. In August 1983, allegedly on the order of Marcos F. assassinated a leading opposition politician Benigno Aquino. The presidential elections of February 1986 in which he won again F. Marcos, said the opposition as rigged, sparking widespread riots, in which they participated as part of the Army. As a result, President Marcos resigned and left the Philippines.
Became president Corazon Aquino, widow of the murdered politician. Launched a reform program, which is not always due to the tense political situation not implemented consistently. Since taking office, faced several coup attempts. In the 1992 election won by former Defense Minister Fidel Ramos.